Sport and the Millenium Goals
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon suggested recently that sport could contribute to achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.
He referred to the UN’s use of sport at the Millennium Development Goal (MGD) summit stating:
“We use sport in many of our programmes. Some of the world’s greatest athletes are helping us to raise awareness on important issues, such as hunger, HIV-AIDS, gender equality, education and environmental care.”
“Millions of other people are active every day all over the world in grassroots and sport-for-all projects. They are using sport to promote democratic values, keeping our youth safe from sexually transmitted diseases, steering them from drug use, taking care of our environment. Let us support these wonderful people, these powerful initiatives.”
Ban Ki-moon made reference to the United Nations collaboration with the Olympic movement and to the success of this summer’s World Cup in South Africa as evidence of the power of sport for positive change.
Working in the space that is Sport for Social Change, I am very happy to have someone of Ban Ki-moon’s standing support the use of sport as a development tool and welcome the United Nations recognitiion of the power and value of sport. I understand the power of sport and how it can change peoples lives, but I have to admit I am scepical that sport can contribute to achievement of the majority of the Millenium Development Goals. Sport does contribute to wider development goals, but when one considers the eight Millenium Development Goals it is difficult to see how sport contributes to more than two of the goals in a small way.
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty
Whilst a few individuals might be able to use their sporting talents to rise out of poverty, for the majority it will not matter how much time they spend in sport, its not going to provide them with the social mobility they need to rise out of poverty or the food to feed them. It could be argued that by teaching life skills, sport can develop self efficacy and that this will help individuals rise out of poverty, but I have not come across any evidence to support that this is happening in any significant way.
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
Sport has helped raise awareness around this MDG through the 1 Goal campaign which was centred around the 2010 World Cup. It also contributes to primary education by supporting school programmes and by supporting informal education of young people. This is however a smal contribution, as sport cannot deliver primary education on its own.
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and the empowerment of women
Participation of women in sport will help build the character, confidence and self efficacy that girls and women need to move towards a more equitable position. Through taking part in sport, women can also start to challenge negative gender roles and stereotypes; and thus contribute to more equitable gender relationships. This is one goal that I believe sport can contribute to.
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality
Child mortality rates can be reduced by better health education and health care. It is hard to see how sport contributes to this challenge except possibly through well known sports personalities lobbying for better health provision.
Goal 5: Improve maternal health
Again it is hard to imagine that sport has a role in addressing this issue.
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
Sport for development programmes have been making a contribution to this MDG by promoting positive prevention of HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases. They have also been working to reduce the stigma and discrimination that impacts people living with HIV/AIDS.
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
Sport has been playing its part to address environmental concerns especially through major events and in the sports programme of developed nations. In the developing world though it is hard to see how sport for social change programmes have really impacted on this MDG.
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
Again this MDG falls outside the scope of sport for development.
The two MDGs that I feel sport for development programmes are helping to address are goals 3 and 6. Despite making only a small contribution to the wider MDGs, sport continues to be a powerful force for good. It is promoting positive youth development, addressing social issues such as alchohol and drug abuse, creating safe environments and developing the life skills of orphans and vulnerable children including street children, involving people living with HIV/AIDS, and people living with a disability. Perhaps when we seek to explain the value of sport for development programmes to beneficiaries and donor/sponsors, we need to look at an impact that extends beyond the eight Millenium Development Goals?